LASIK (Laser-Assisted in situ Keratomileusis) is an action with the laser eye surgery performed by refractive ophthalmologist to improve Myopia, hipermetropi, and Astigmatism.
The human eye has three layers:
- Fibrous layer (outer coat), consisting of sclera and cornea Sclera composed of fibrous layer covering the 5 / 6 the back of the eyeball. Section front for vision through the conjunctiva bulbaris (“the white of the eye”). The cornea is the transparent part of the fibrous coat covering 1 / 6 the front of the eyeball.
- Vascular layer (the coat), consisting of choroid, body cilia, and sliced Choroid, a dark reddish-brown layer between sclera and retina, forming the bulk of the vascular layer of the eyeball. Choroid body is connecting cilium with iris. Iris is a part close to the front surface of the lens.
- Layer in the (mantle of), consisting of the retina and the optic has a non-visual Part optic visualizing the retina is sensitive to light and has two layers: neutral layers and layers of pigment cells. Non-visual part of the retina is part of the continuation of the layer of pigment cells and cells lining the cilia through the rear surface of the retina and iris.
Some procedures performed LASIK in action:
The use of contact lens is usually stopped approximately 5-21 days before surgery. Before surgery, the patient’s cornea to be examined using measured pakimeter thickness and with a topographer to measure surface contours. By using low-power lasers, a topographer creates a corneal topography map. This process is performed to detect Astigmatism and Corneal deformities other. By using this information, the surgeon calculates the amount and location of corneal tissue to be removed when operating. Usually, patients had given a prescription of antibiotics prior to this action to reduce the risk of infection after the procedure runs.
Done when the patient woke up and move. Sometimes the patient is given a mild sedative, like Valium and anesthetic eye drops. Three steps LASIK actions:
a. Flap Creation
A corneal suction ring was placed on the eye, make eyes in place (so do not moving). This step can sometimes cause bleeding (subconjunctival hemorrhage) in the sclera. These are mild side effects that can be experienced for several weeks. Increased suction caused blurred vision for a while. This process is done with a mechanical mikrokeratomi using a metal blade or a femtosecond laser microkeratome (intraLASIK). A hinge (hinge) left at the end of this flap. Flap and then reversed, reveal the stromal, the middle of the cornea. The process of appointment and this reversal may be less comfortable.
b. Laser remodeling
The second step uses eximer laser (193 nm) to change the shape of the cornea stromal. Laser vaporizes tissue without damaging the stromal. To erode the network does not need to fire or cutting. Network layer thickness is taken ten micrometers. The use of laser ablation in the deeper corneal stromal causes acceleration and improved visualization to produce less pain than the earlier technique, photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). View of the patient will be very unclear when the flap lifted. Patients can only see the white light surrounding the orange light laser.
c. Reposition of Flap
After laser re-established stromal layer, the flap is returned position carefully by the surgeon, and checked the air bubbles, debris with appropriate action on the eyes.
Patients are usually given antibiotic eye drops and anti-inflammatory for a few weeks after surgery. Patients are also asked to sleep more and wearing sunglasses to protect eyes from light, avoid so as not rubbing their eyes when not sleeping, and reduce dry eyes. Patients should follow the surgeon’s advice to reduce the risk of postoperative complications.
What are the complications of this surgery?
Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common complication of minor post-LASIK. The most common complications of refractive surgery is the incidence of dry eye.
Patients risk experiencing side effects visualization problems, such as: halo, double visualization (Ghosting), loss of contrast sensitivity (Foggy vision) and glare after LASIK depends on the degree of ametropia before surgery and other risk factors. Therefore, it is important to calculate the potential risk of a patient and not only estimates the average chance for all patients.